Multiple health challenges is faced by the world in 2019. These range from multiple humanitarian crises, health effects due to pollution, growing obesity, physical inactivity, drug resistant pathogens, and diseases like diphtheria and measles which are vaccine preventable.
Certain non-communicable diseases like heart disease, cancer and diabetes are responsible for 70% of the deaths around the world which totals to around 41 million people. Including 15 million prematurely dying between the age 30 to 69. Majority of these deaths occur in low to middle income countries. These diseases have increased due to the risk factors involving air pollution, unhealthy diet, use of alcohol, physical inactivity and use of tobacco. These risk factors further affect the mental health which may appear from early age. Mental illness usually begins at the age of 14, but majority cases go untreated. Second leading cause of death amongst youngsters is suicide.
influenza pandemic is another disease that spreads around the world un informed. No one knows where the disease will hit and how severe it would get.
The development of antivirals and antibiotics was the greatest success of modern medicine. However, the time of these drugs is running. The ability of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasite to resist these medicines – Antimicrobial resistance, has threatened to take us to the era when infections such as salmonellosis, gonorrhea, tuberculosis and pneumonia were not easily treated. This could seriously compromise the procedures and surgeries. Tuberculosis drug resistance is a formidable obstacle to fight the disease causing about 10 million falling sick and 1.6 million dying each year.
The outbreak of two separate Ebola in democratic republic of Congo, spreading to cities with more than 1 million people, shows that there is a high threat that pathogens like Ebola can erupt. The outbreak can be disastrous if spread to the modern urban cities. The densely populated urban areas will be quickly cover under the effect of Ebola if precautionary measures are not taken. In a conference of public health emergencies, participants from tourism, transport, animal health and public health focused on the challenges of health emergencies of urban cities and tackling the outbreaks. Year 2019 was designated as ‘Action on preparedness of health emergencies’.
Dengue, the mosquito bit disease causes symptoms of flu which can get lethal, killing upto 20% of severe dengue cases. Dengue has been increasing in threat fro years. Mainly the cases of dengue appear in rainy season in countries such as India and Bangladesh. The season of rainy days is lengthening in these countries, causing the number of deaths to increase. Bangladesh had the highest number of deaths in 2018 in 20 years. The disease is now spreading to more temperate and less tropical countries like Nepal. 40% of the world is estimated to be facing the risk of dengue fever with per year infections of around 390 million.
HIV epidemic continues with having a million people die every year. Since the start of the disease, almost 70 million people have been effected with around 35 million dying from the disease. Young girls and women are particularly at higher risk of infection.